Thursday, December 5, 2019
Business Ethics Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Question: Discuss about theBusiness Ethicsfor Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Answer: Introduction Nurse Denied CPR to Elderly Patient who Died I was reading an article which stated that a female nurse refused to give CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) to Ms. Lorraine Bayless who is an 87 year old lady. The lady collapsed in the senior residence and the nurse refused as it is a part of companys rules and regulations (Welie and ten Have 2014, p.1). I am disheartened and shocked to hear that nurses are behaving with patients in an ill-treated way as their duty is to provide all types of help during emergencies. The nurse dialed 911 and reported that lady was not breathing, so the dispatcher over the phone told her to provide CPR but the nurse refused stating that they do not have any permission to provide CPR as mentioned in the employers organizational policy. But the dispatcher requested her to ask any other person standing nearby so that that suffering lady can receive CPR. The nurse replied she was in a dining room and she cannot tell others to provide CPR to the lady as they do not have any knowledge. Does the company policy inhibit one from saving the life of another individual? It shocked me because nurses not only know what to do in the emergency cases like this, they are supposed to care enough to do that. I will start to explain this situation using egoism theory. According to the egoist consults, they highlight that nothing is beyond one advantage when deciding how to act. One should not operate on the principle of self-interest. The upright moral action is the one which among all the possible act provide the greatest balance of benefit to harm for the moral aspect. In this situation, the nurse ought to have provided the CPR to the patient despite the company policy that discourages so (Victor and Cullen, 1987). The issue of the company policy about the nurse independent seniors resident not giving nurses care is an unethical practice. This horrible act of the nurse refusing to give permission to anyone else to get the emergency instructions from the 911 dispatcher is the most difficult act no matter what kind of home this was. Further, according to John Stuart Mill in his theory of utilitarianism, he highlights that we all should always act to produce on the greatest possible balance of the good over the evil to every individual who has been affected by our actions (Leininger and McFarland, 2002). A good policy should promote the general welfare more than the other alternative. This I found to be true in that despite the company policy in place the humane thing the senior nurse could have done is at least permit the passerby to do the CPR if at all she was afraid to lose her job. She should have brought objectivity to the decision-making. John encourages the organizations to focus on the results of the actions and the policies rather not on the ruling out certain classes of the actions in advance. There should have been exceptions to the non-health care residences in case of emergencies situations, especially the one that was involving the senior nurse who should have done what she was trained to do that is to administer CPR when someone stops to breathe. If in the situation the nurse was precluded from providing the CPR we could ask ourselves what was she doing there in the first place? The policy of Brookdale Senior Living who runs the nursing home was not clear what the nurse should do in case an emergency occurs. The public statement made by Brookdale is that nurse has misinterpreted the guidelines of the company. Brookdale told they have legal documents like Physicians Orders for Life Sustaining Treatment (POLST) and advanced health care directives which outline steps to take during an emergency( Urden and Dineen 2015, p.10).The fact is there should be a proper communication between the doctor and the nurse regarding emergencies so that lives are not lost. Either there will or will not be an intervention during emergencies. I believe that if you are sure that you do not want to be resuscitated when the breathing is stopped, let others know where you stay and the requirements so that this information will be available (Hammes et al. 2012, pp.77-85). If you have a statement that is correct where you do not need resuscitation and you stop breathing, then 911 should not be dialed. Paramedics will need to attempt CPR for every time. The question is why every person do not have a Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order or statement? This statement should be available to everyone and this will help to overcome dangers in emergency situations. Usage of the Social Media for the Youth and Training the Elders and their Caregivers There exists a group of young people who have grown up in the Internet era who engage with social media on a regular basis. Their personal identity and the natural environment exist only in social media itself. The social media provides the youth a space for connecting with others, expressing and sharing ideas, etc. Though social media is a boon for most of the people whether sharing ideas, recruiting candidates, video chatting, etc, I want to suggest that this new technology and thus new medium of expression raises some ethical issues that needs to be pondered. I want to argue is it ethical for studying the material related to advertising, which is showcased in social media targeting the group who have not yet reached the maturity level for participating in these advertising surveys and are unable to provide the right answer? As parents are more mature, they should be the target group and I believe it should be more ethical approach for surveying. But, people need to know that the p olicy setting of the social media changes frequently. Like, Facebook reviews all the ads targeting the people aged below 18 years of age, their policies regarding to privacy changes without prior information and there is unavailability of mechanism for confirming someones age that is declared online. The social media, the web as well as technologies are increasingly being used in the health care and support directly the patient-centered care especially the elderly. According to the theory of Smith invisible hand argues when individual are left to pursue their interests they will, without intending it, produce the greatest good for all (Watson, 2006). I disagree with this concept if the regulation is not enforced for the youth on what they do on the internet there would be the great catastrophe which will happen. The parent should supervise what they view, watch or perhaps comment. There should be mechanisms for confirming on the privacy of individuals especially when they are doing the survey of sensitive health issues; anonymity could be essential. Just like the normative theory highlights us should all perform the actions which bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number? The social media plans a significant impact on both the youth and the senior citizens (Watso n, 2006). Therefore it is the sole duty of the companies to put the mechanism in place to protect the privacy of individuals who rely on their personal information in the media especially the internet. Nonetheless, the youth need to perform the actions, especially when using the internet that accords to a given set of rules that are accepted. The exploitation of the medical social media in the healthcare application would require a careful reflection of the roles as well as responsibilities. Confidence and privacy need to be preserved carefully. The patient-physician relationship could suffer on both end since private information of both the healthcare provider and the consumer could be accessible through the internet. Preservation of anonymity when carrying a survey and citing the content of internet need to be crucial. Like the youths, the elderly patients have some rights for using social media. Recently there were various efforts for the elderly patients for training their brain with the help of social media sites so that they can improve their memory and skills related to cognitive (Househ et al. 2014, pp.50-58). There are various videos related to nature, art, history, etc to train them. But all the videos may not fully help all the patients to get interested. I suggest that the future projects should be well informed that should be beneficial for every elder. Another step that could be taken by providing tutorials and workshops that are relevant related to consent decisions and ensure to keep and process the consent record in a safe way (Goodall et al. 2014, pp.728-738).The process related to consenting must involve all the interested shareholders and stakeholders which includes the patients, the caregivers and health professionals so that there is an understanding among everyone. Ethical Issue in Abortion I have always held the opinion that every individual has the inherent right to life. The right to life is inherent in a person, human beings. Have always regarded abortion as a murder unless in the situation when the life of the mother is at risk (Reckwitz, 2002). The doctor should always have the best interest of the patient. They need to access objectively as well as meticulously on all the available diagnostic and the therapeutic options and implement the ones that protect and promote the interest of the patients by ensuring the balance of the good over the harm. From the consequential perspective (teleological) motive should be more significant than the outcome. In this situation, we could ask ourselves what the best outcome is. The answer to this would be right should reign over the wrong. The doctor needs to analyze the situation and find the best alternative for the patient. If the situation puts the life of the mother at stake then and only then can be abortion be done (Reckw itz, 2002). According to some proponents of abortion, they highlight that committing abortion is morally justified. An individual is not under tan obligation to conceive children if it could harm to their life or stop them from achieving certain worthwhile things. On my view I regard this not to be true, every individual has the right to live unless under exceptional circumstances when the life of another is at risk (Mutcherson 2015, pp.206-210). We clearly know that life is present from the moment of conception according to modern biology. According to Deontological perspective, Kantian ethics agree that right should surpass the wrong. There is a need to recognize on the worth and the dignity of the human beings as part of our individual moral nature. Every person needs to act morally by involving our self-conscious acceptance of the constraints or perhaps the rule to take place on the limit on the pursuit of what we are planning. Killing an innocent human being is morally wrong ev en though it is just a fetus and one would live with the consequences of that act (Saenz 2014, pp.475-482). To conclude, I am of the view that terminating a pregnancy is of serious concern. It will always remain a serious matter to any girl or women who chooses to abort for whatever the reason. It is a choice that a girl has to live with it till death. No matter the reasoning or rationalization she will choose to justify her choice. She is the only one who has to deal with various emotions to follow her choice, guilt, beg for forgiveness and wonder for the rest of the life if the decision taken was right or not. I do not believe that it is a choice a woman could make and then forget about because her humanity was never questioned. Making the choice would be torment and agony enough, yet I firmly believe it is still her choice. Entrepreneurs Facing Ethical Challenges What is a typical day like for entrepreneurs? Surely it has some ups and down. There are ethical problems which may affect their daily tasks. For instance, according to the theory of capitalist, it argues that in any organization its primary objective is to make profits. Based on this fact any business tends to business to make a profit despite these activities affecting the community or individuals. (Reckwitz, 2002) There are particular ethical dilemmas to every profession as well as industry. The difficulty the entrepreneurs face is more formidable and difficult to manage. For instance, the startup business has no infrastructure for addressing ethical challenges and to be frank these entrepreneurs have little time or perhaps focus on monitoring their behavior. Many marriages and relationships are destroyed or on the verge of destruction as the entrepreneurs are fully consumed in building the startup (Eddleston and Powell 2012, pp.513-541). But there is no guarantee whether the startup will be successful. So what are the strategies that need to be taken where there will be less risk of neglect regarding divorce, relationship with friends and others (Crosetto and Regner 2014, p.035)? Most startups do not become rich. According to my view, there should be an open discussion with the family and friends whether the rewards of undertaking the enterprise (in the event it is successful) justify taking the risk. The central question to address is should our ambition impact on our happiness? In most of the time, individuals start their business and channel all their time and resources to that business. Consequently, the individual does not have time for their families and the business sometimes do not end up becoming successful (Onyemah et al. 2013, pp.74-79)? There is a need to balance between personal time and business. Priorities need to be set to balance the two aspects. Deontology perspective of non-consequentialists believed that we need to appeal more for instance on the prioritize we set than the consequences from the outcome (Reckwitz, 2002). This will undoubtedly help determine the moral worth of the actions taken. 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